Sample Pathotaxis FL15 Track Movie

Assay Description

This assay is optimized for fluorescence, inverted microscopic images of immune cells, such as T-cells, moving toward pathogen cells, such as tumor cells.

Microscopy Requirements

Microscopy Imaging Mode
Microscopy Resolution
Optimal: 3.0 pixels/µm; Minimum: 0.5 pix/µm
Field of View
Approximately 1 mm x 1 mm
Time Between Frames
10 seconds to 30 seconds
Image Size
Typically 2048 pixels wide or greater
Image Aspect Ratio
Acceptable range is 4:3 to 16:9
Compatible Image Formats
jpg, png, bmp, tif
Compatible Video Formats
mp4 movie file containing H.264 encoded images
Cell Density
60 / 1.0 mm2
Typical Cell Size
varied based on the type of immune and pathogen cells

Example Image

The image size is 2048 x 2048 pixels.

The pathogen cells were stained red and the immune cells were stained green. In some cases, we are able to track cells without stain or only staining one of the cell types to prevent the stain having an effect on the cells. You can see that the pathogen cells are tightly bunched which is not ideal. Try to keep the cell density low enough so that cells are not touching unless they are forming a cluster.

pathotaxis example image

Try It Yourself

Sample Report

Reference Paper

Reference Paper on co-culturing T-Cells and Cancer Cells: Neurotransmitters regulate the migration and cytotoxicity in natural killer cells

Using peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) cells, we show that the neurotransmitters endorphin, histamine and substance P increase NK cell cytotoxicity, while norepinephrine inhibits cytotoxicity. Moreover, substance P reduces migratory activity, while norepinephrine

Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CAR) T Cell Therapy in Solid Tumor: Challenges and Clinical Applications

Quantification of killing, the decision between life and death is easy to measure in a lab in order to verify the functionality of the CAR T cells. In contrast, movement of these cells towards a pathogenic cell – a process that we have termed as pathotaxis – is a gradual cell function that is very difficult to quantify. But if the CAR T cells don’t find their target, they cannot kill it. This vitally essential issue of inappropriate trafficking is addressed in this paper.